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Search Knowledge Base Knowledge Base - Glossary of Terms
Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.
12 Glossary Terms Found
Mathematical description of the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source. This is the amount of relative energy emitted by a source at each wavelength in its emission spectrum, as compared to an equal energy source.

Illuminant / Observer
Mathematical description that integrates the relative spectral power distribution of a real or imaginary light source with the standard observer functions for either the 2° or 10° condition.

Index of refraction
The index of refraction is the speed at which light travels through a medium. Air is one medium and its index of refraction is 1.0. The colored sample you measure is made of some material, and it has an index of refraction different from air. Because of index of refraction differences, when the light travels through air and encounters the sample, some the light is reflected at the sample surface and never penetrates the sample.

A material used to create a colored sample. In pigment matching software, all raw materials including colorants are considered to be ingredients, and are assigned an ingredient type. The program can break ingredients down into parent ingredients and component ingredients or sub-ingredients.

Ingredient form
Ingredients may contain any number of components that may, themselves, have components. "Form" describes a level of expansion of a colorant into component ingredients. Three "special" forms are given user-definable labels: • Unexpanded-Typical labels include Base, Ready-To-Use, Light. • Expanded One Level-Typical labels include Heavy, Paste, Neat, Concentrate. • Completely expanded into components- Typical labels include Dry, and Powder. The default choices for the colorant form are defined in the Colorant Set. The customized labels for ingredient form are defined in System Administration.

Ingredient mode
(also formula mode). Mode refers to how you measure the ingredients that go into the formula. For example, if you weigh the amounts of each ingredient, the ingredient mode is weight. If you assemble formulas based on volume, or specific gravity (e.g., gallon, liter, cc, etc.) the ingredient mode is volume.

Ingredient rank
A number representing preferred display order. It is assigned through Ingredient Maintenance. You can decide to display ingredients by Rank, Name or by the ingredient amount. If you want the ingredients presented in a particular order other than name, you must assign a rank.

Ingredient Type
An ingredient type, or category, is assigned to every material in your pigment matching system. In a formula, each material has a specific function, and the function determines its ingredient type. A formula can contain the following basic ingredient types: • Colorant • Clear • Thinner • Auxiliaries • Bases Assigning ingredient types to materials allows you to work with ingredients as a group. This may be useful for scaling formulas, and setting constraints on a formula, such as colorant loading.

Instrument calibration
Daily procedure used to standardize the performance of the instrument. It is done to account for changes in the environment (humidity, heat, dust, etc.) that can change the performance of the instrument.

Instrument repeatability
A comparison of measurements made of the same sample, using the same instrument. The variation in measurements is expressed in terms of DE. Manufacturers of spectrophotometers for commercial use include a value for repeatability in the instrument specification. This value is only valid for comparisons of measurements of an achromatic sample (typically a white). The sample being used must have a uniform surface free of defects, and cannot exhibit any characteristics of geometric metamerism.

Inter-instrument agreement / reproducibility
A comparison of measurements made of the same sample by different instruments. The variation in sample measurements is expressed in terms of DE. Manufacturers of spectrophotometers that are used commercially include a value for inter-instrument agreement in the instrument specification. Instrument manufacturers typically provide a specification for inter-instrument agreement. This specification is valid when comparing the same instrument models. When comparing two different instrument models or manufacturers, you may see significant differences in the inter-instrument agreement.

Internal reflectance
That amount of energy that enters a sample, and is trapped inside the sample because it is unable to travel across the air/sample boundary.


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