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Search Knowledge Base Knowledge Base - Glossary of Terms
Glossary is usually defined as an alphabetical list of technical terms in some specialized field of knowledge. This knowledge base glossary provides a collection of knowledge base documents that define many technical terms. These terms are arranged alphabetically, but you can quickly jump to a specific term by selecting its first letter from the index of the knowledge base glossary below.
 
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178 Glossary Terms Found Displaying record 91 to 105 out of 178 search results
Inter-instrument agreement / reproducibility
A comparison of measurements made of the same sample by different instruments. The variation in sample measurements is expressed in terms of DE. Manufacturers of spectrophotometers that are used commercially include a value for inter-instrument agreement in the instrument specification. Instrument manufacturers typically provide a specification for inter-instrument agreement. This specification is valid when comparing the same instrument models. When comparing two different instrument models or manufacturers, you may see significant differences in the inter-instrument agreement.

Internal reflectance
That amount of energy that enters a sample, and is trapped inside the sample because it is unable to travel across the air/sample boundary.

Job
Jobs contain all of the instructions and data the program uses to complete matching and correction activities. It includes specific information regarding software options to be activated, tolerances, and the screen configuration. Unlike a job template, a job also contains data, such as spectral data for the standard and batch, and the formula predictions that were both calculated and prepared while the job was being processed, etc.

Job page
All of the activity for a job is stored in the job record. The record consists of pages, each of which records the activity, both input and output, for a particular job state. Before results are displayed, Formula Central is in an "input" state. Each time a user receives results for a discrete activity (formulation, correction, search, manual/modify), a job page is completed. Pages in the active job can be viewed at any time by clicking on the job page buttons in the toolbar.

Job state
The job state identifies the current condition, or ‘state’, of Formula Central, and is reported in the status bar at the bottom of the window.

Job template
A job template contains all of the instructions the program needs to create a job, but it does not contain any data. Specifically, the job template provides initial settings for: • the fields to be displayed in the evaluation screen and the formula grid • the acceptability tolerances for the match • the rules for sorting the formulas The job template serves as the starting point for your work, providing you with the tools needed to complete the job (the correct software options, tolerances, etc.). Because it does not hold on to data specific to a particular color, a job template can be used over and over again—it guides you through the process of matching and correcting colors.

Job tolerances
Limits set on specific properties of a colored sample, such as color difference, film thickness, etc. Job tolerances are used by the program to determine if the differences between two samples are acceptable.

K
Kubelka Munk coefficient of Absorption. The optical property that describes the absorption of light by a colorant or mixture of colorants.

K/S
The ratio of the optical constants, K (absorption coefficient) and S (scattering coefficient) for a colorant. It is part of the equation used to calculate formulations and corrections. The equation states that K/S can be calculated from the reflectance of a sample: (this is a division expression) K/S = (1-R)2 / 2R It also states that K/S is directly proportional to colorant concentration. Knowing the reflectance measurements of the samples, and the concentration of colorants in the mixtures, the K/S of the mixture can be calculated.

Kubelka Munk theory
A theory that describes the optical behavior of materials which scatter and absorb radiant energy.

Laboratory correction
The existing recipe is altered and saved again. Every additional laboratory correction reduces the differences to the color sample.

Level
In formulation software, level refers to a particular type of data stored in a colorant record. Level data includes the volumetric concentration of colorant in the mixture, and the optical data calculated for that volume concentration. When calculating optical constants, the program always works with the colorant concentration expressed as a volume percent. In most cases, weight concentrations are provided on the Mixtures tab. These are converted to the equivalent volume percent based on the formula used, and the ingredient densities provided. The volumetric concentration is displayed on the Level tab. Because the volume concentration is usually calculated, it is considered theoretical data.

Light
Electromagnetic radiation that a human detects through visual sensations that arise from the stimulation of the retina of the eye. This portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum includes wavelengths from about 380nm – 770nm. It is incorrect to refer to electromagnetic radiation outside of this range (i.e., ultra-violet wavelengths) as ‘light’, since the human observer does not detect it visually. Adjective meaning high reflectance, transmittance, or level of illumination as contrasted to dark or low level of intensity.

Light source
An object that emits radiant energy (light) to which the human eye is sensitive. The emission of a light source can be described by the relative amount of energy emitted at each wavelength in the visible spectrum. This numeric description is an Illuminant. The light source can also be described in terms of its color temperature, expressed in Kelvin. For example, there are several daylight sources, such as D5000 and D6500 that have different color temperatures.

Masstone
A colorant/vehicle mixture that contains a single colorant.

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